Install spf records for all accounts on cPanel server

November 26th, 2011

Command to install spf record on single cPanel account.

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/spf_installer cPanel_username

Put actual username in place of cPanel_username

Instead of installing spf records on cPanel accounts one by one use the following script to install it in one step:

cd /var/cpanel/users

for i in `ls /var/cpanel/users` ;do /usr/local/cpanel/bin/spf_installer $i ;done

 

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db4 error

November 26th, 2011

 

Error: db4 error(-30974) from dbenv->open: DB_VERSION_MISMATCH: Database environment version mismatch

Solution:  Remove the corrupted db file by ,

rm -f /var/lib/rpm/__db*

Then rebuild rpm database by command,

rpm –rebuilddb -v -v

That’s it. icon smile db4 error

 

 

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Change php version through .htaccess

November 24th, 2011

If there are two php versions compiled on server and you wish to use php version for your domain other than the default one then make the  use .htaccess for this.

For example default php version on server is set to php 4 then all domains by default will use php4.  But certain applications installed on a domain runs only under php5 then in that case it is necessary that domain should use php5

Open .htaccess by any suitable editor like vi, pico etc. Put the following code into it.

Server without suphp enabled

AddType application/x-httpd-php5 .php .htm .html

Server with suphp enabled

AddHandler application/x-httpd-php5 .php .htm .html

Same way you can enable php4 if the default php version is php5. Just put the php4 instead php5 in above code.

 

 

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Activate cPanel license from shell

November 24th, 2011

Many users experience the following error while accessing WHM/cPanel

License could not be activated.

Following are some reasons due to which this error can be occurred.

1)If server hostname has been changed

2)If primary IP of cPanel server for which cPanel license was activated, has been changed.

3)Server firewall.

Here are some basic steps to fix this error.

Verify that cPanel license is activated at http://verify.cpanel.net.

If link shows that WHM is licensed then verify server hostname , primary IP just to ensure if it hasn’t been changed. Correct the primary IP address , hostname if it found to be changed.  Stop/start server firewall.

If server IP, hostname is correct then check if server’s primary IP address match with the IP address of license. For that type the following command from shell.

curl http://www.cPanel.net/showip.cgi

If output gives other IP address then you need to license that IP.

If everything appears to be corrected then just activate cPanel license from command line.

root@server [~]# /usr/local/cpanel/cpkeyclt

Hope you shouldn’t see any error at this time.

 

 

 

 

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Password protected directrories

November 24th, 2011

Password protection restricts access to particular folder. Only authenticate users can access password protected folder.

 

Here are few steps with which you can enable password protection

 

1)Login to cPanel.

2)Click on icon Password Protect Directories. Directory Selection window will appear. 3)Click on radio button of web root and then click on Go button.

4)Click on folder name for which you wish to enable password protection.

5)Enable checkbox Password protect this directory.

6)Put proper name in the field Password protect this directory and click on save button.

 

Here you done with the password protection.

 

Now you need to add user with the password to access protected folder.

 

7)In the field username put username

8′) Then put the password in New password field, repeat the password  in Password (Again) field and then click on button Add/modify authorized user

Now try the URL just to confirm that password protection is working for desired folder. If you see username / password prompt then it indicate that password protection is enabled.

 

Quick steps to enable password protection from shell.

 

Create .htaccess file in folder which you wish to make it password protected and put the following content

 

AuthName “Restricted Area”
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /home/username/.htpasswd
<Limit GET POST PUT>
Require valid-user
</Limit>

 

Username should be cPanel user of the domain.

 

Now type the following command in shell to add username and password

 

htpasswd -c /home/username/.htpasswd testuser.

 

In apache 2.2 you may need to use absolute path of htpasswd, /usr/local/apache/bin/htpasswd

That will be prompted for new password. Put the desired password.

The newly username and password will be saved in /home/username/.htpasswd

Now open browser to access secure part of the webite just to ensure that you are prompted for username and password.

 

 

 

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Wildcard DNS and Wildcard SSL

November 23rd, 2011

Wildcard SSL

A wildcard ssl use to secure not only primary domain but also multiple subdomains added on it. SSL certificates are usually issued to fully qualified domain names (FQDN), so if you want to access your domain at secure link with www and without www then you would need two separate SSL Certificates.
There is no need of separate ssl certificate for www.domain.com and domain.com if you purchase wildcard ssl.

You can access a domain with www or without www with the wildcard SSL.
Any subdomain added on it can be accessible at secure link with the same wild card ssl installed at primary domain.

Wildcard DNS

A wildcard DNS record redirects requests for non-existent domain names (Usually subdomains that are not exists) to primary domain name.
For example if you type xyz.domain.com it will redirects the requets to domain.com.

A wildcard DNS record is specified by using a *  as the leftmost part of a domain name, e.g. *.domain.com.

For wildcard ssl, domain should have wildcard dns enabled on it. Follow the few steps here and you will be able to enable wildcard dns for domain on cPanel server.

A typical dns zone file of any domain on cPanel server,

; cPanel 11.28.60-RELEASE_50962
; Zone file for domain.com
$TTL 600
@      600      IN      SOA     ns9.dns.com. admin.domain.com. (
2011020102      ; serial, todays date+todays
86400           ; refresh, seconds
7200            ; retry, seconds
3600000         ; expire, seconds
86400 )         ; minimum, seconds

domain.com. 600 IN NS ns9.dns.com.
domain.com. 600 IN NS ns10.dns.com.

domain.com. IN A x.x.x.x

localhost.domain.com. IN A 127.0.0.1

domain.com. IN MX 0 domain.com.

mail IN CNAME domain.com.
www IN CNAME domain.com.
ftp IN A x.x.x.x
cpanel IN A x.x.x.x
whm IN A x.x.x.x
webmail IN A x.x.x.x
webdisk IN A x.x.x.x

Open the dns zone file of domain by vi editir or from WHM >  Main >> DNS Functions >> Edit DNS Zone and simply add the entry

*.domain.com IN A x.x.x.x

Save the file and restart the named sevice.

Now one more change need to done in apache.conf but here you need to add one more entry in serveralias.

Open apache configuration file on server by vi editor as vi /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf. Add serveralias for domain as
*.domain.com

<VirtualHost x.x.x.x:80>
ServerName domain.com
ServerAlias www.domain.com *.domain.com
DocumentRoot /home/cpanel_user/public_html
ServerAdmin webmaster@domain.com

Save the changes and restart apace server.  Once this done you are free to install wildcard ssl on domain

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Reliable Hosting

August 14th, 2011

Reliable web hosting services are offered by most web hosting companies these days as many businesses are after a web hosting account that will be able to provide them with almost 100% guaranteed uptime. Regardless of the form of web hosting that you choose to meet your specifications, you should be able to expect a good level of reliability from your web hosting plan and indeed any good web hosting provider will offer an uptime guarantee across their entire range of web hosting services; however, you shouldn’t solely rely on the uptime guarantees offered by your web hosting company because issues may arise that are out of your web hosting provider’s hands to control that could cause longer periods of downtime. Although shared web hosting services aren’t known for their reliability, many web hosting companies are now introducing cloud hosting services to replace these web hosting plans at the lower-end of the market as cloud services can offer up to 100% guaranteed uptime without increasing the cost price of the web hosting plan; you will find existing VPS server and dedicated server hosting plans to be highly reliable anyhow because of the dedicated web hosting environment that is offered. In order to ensure that you make an informed decision about the reliability of any web hosting plan that you may be considering, it is important for you to do your background research into any web hosting company that you may be looking to use because the reputation of a web hosting provider is typically a good indicator of their attitude towards customer service, something that can affect the reliability of a hosting account.

What factors can affect the reliability of a web hosting plan?

There are several different factors that can affect the reliability of a web hosting plan, regardless of the form of web hosting that you choose to use. Some of these factors include, but are not limited to:

  • Management – the management of the server that you are hosted on is one of the biggest factors that could have an effect on how reliable your web hosting account is because it is important for errors to be dealt with as they arise and for hosting servers to use the latest versions of software available to minimize any possible security risks – as a shared web hosting client you should have confidence in your chosen web hosting provider to manage the shared web hosting server properly, but as a VPS server user or a dedicated server it is down to you to ensure that you have the skills necessary to manage your server properly, if you feel you don’t then you should perhaps consider a managed web hosting plan to fulfil your needs in this area
  • Specifications – as a dedicated web hosting user, the specifications of your server can impact on the reliability of your web hosting experience as if you are using a server with inadequate resources then you could find that your website or web application is putting too much load on your server, which in some cases could cause it to crash – when choosing a dedicated web hosting plan, it is important for you to ensure that you have a clear idea of what you need from a server hosting service so that you can make the correct selections and choices during the ordering process – if you do find that you require extra resources for your server then you can easily purchase upgrades from your web hosting provider as required
  • Other users – if you are hosted in a shared web hosting environment then the actions of other users who are hosted on the same server as you can impact on the reliability of your own website – because everyone in a shared web hosting environment is sharing the same resources, if one web hosting account happens to overload the hosting node and causes it to crash, this will take every website on the server with it – however, if web hosting providers are using the right software then situations like this are completely avoidable.

How do I choose a reliable web hosting plan?

There are measures that you can take to guarantee that you choose a reliable web hosting plan, including:

  • Uptime statistics – most web hosting companies will be able to provide you with their uptime statistics for the past year and if you are going to take the level of reliability that you are provided with seriously, you should ensure that you check out these details – if a web hosting company is unable to provide you with valid uptime statistics then you should perhaps move onto to another provide – it should also be noted that some web hosting companies use uptime monitoring solutions that will be able to provide you with reliable information instantly, an example of such a service is HyperSpin
  • Dedicated web hosting – you should consider a dedicated web hosting plan if you want to be guaranteed reliability because a dedicated web hosting environment will provide you with the ability to control your resource usage as no other users will be able to impact on the performance of your website – even though VPS servers and dedicated servers are rather expensive, the extra cost is usually justifiable through the features that both forms of web hosting are able to offer you, if you aren’t able to justify the extra cost then dedicated web hosting may not be the right choice for you.

In conclusion, reliable hosting should be widespread these days as new technologies have helped to make web hosting platforms more stable, whilst web hosting providers should now have the skills required to rectify most server issues as they arise so that if any downtime is caused, it is minimal.

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Features of VPS Server Hosting

August 12th, 2011

There are many different features that come together to form a VPS server hosting environment, but the features of a VPS server will provide you with your own dedicated web hosting environment that will guarantee isolation from any other users. VPS servers offer an affordable alternative to dedicated server hosting whilst preserving a majority of the features that a dedicated server can offer you; with a VPS server you will still have your own guaranteed resources that will enable you install and use the applications and services of your choice, as well as allowing you to have an independent web hosting environment that can’t be affected by other users as you will be the only one using your VPS server. Any good web hosting provider will be able to offer you the choice between Windows VPS server hosting and Linux VPS server hosting; both platforms are able to offer a number of different features and you are likely to make your choice based on your requirements, such as the scripting languages and database platforms that you are use to using. For experienced professionals, a VPS server can provide you with an environment in which you can put your skills to use as you will have full access to your dedicated hosting environment; as a Windows VPS server user you will be able to manage your server via Remote Desktop, and if you choose Linux as your platform then you will be able to access your VPS server using SSH.

What are the main features of a VPS server?

There are several different features that you should review in a VPS server prior to purchase as you want to be sure that you choose a server that is not only powerful enough for you, but will be compatible with the applications and services that you wish to use. These features include:

  • Guaranteed RAM – the guaranteed RAM provided with your VPS server is an assignment of the physical RAM that belongs to the host machine on which your VPS server is hosted – the amount of guaranteed RAM that you have available will dictate how many applications and services you are able to run at the same time as all processes require memory to be able to perform their operations effectively, with some applications being more memory intensive than others – all VPS server hosting plans come with differentiating levels of RAM and because of this it is important to do your research to ensure that you choose a VPS hosting plan that will offer you the RAM that you need to run all of the applications that you require
  • Disk space – this is another important factor because it will dictate how much content you are able to store on your VPS server and this could have an affect on you if you are running a large website because large amounts of multimedia such as photos and music as well as large databases can be responsible for using up large amounts of disk space – if you find that you begin to run out of disk space on your VPS server then you can always purchase additional disk space from your web hosting provider, who should then be able to assign it to your server in no time at all
  • Dedicated hosting environment – a dedicated hosting environment will provide you with complete isolation from other users, making you responsible for the stability of your server as you are going to be responsible for managing it – as you will have full administrator access to your dedicated hosting environment, you will be able to install any applications that you want on your platform, making VPS server hosting ideal for web developers or businesses that require specialist applications server-side in order for their web applications to be able to function properly and perform their duties as required – it should be noted that in order to be able to make the most of your dedicated hosting environment, you should have some past experience of server management.

Why should I consider a VPS server over a dedicated server?

You should consider a VPS server over a dedicated server for several reasons, but in order for a VPS server to be of more benefit to you than a dedicated server you must have ruled out dedicated server hosting in the first instance, for example if the resources posed by a dedicated server are too much for you; such reasons could include:

  • Lower costs – a VPS server hosting plan will always be much cheaper than a dedicated server and even though the resources provided may be lower than what a dedicated server can offer, you will retain the main benefits of using a dedicated server such as a the guaranteed resources and dedicated web hosting environment – if you are looking to get started with dedicated web hosting for the first time then this means that a VPS server hosting plan will represent a much more affordable option than a dedicated server
  • Easier to manage – depending on the virtualization platform that your web hosting company is using to deliver its VPS server hosting services, you will be provided with access to a web based control panel through which you will be able to manage certain aspects of your VPS server without the need to login to it directly using SSH or Remote Desktop, whichever is appropriate – this can provide you with a major benefit over dedicated server hosting as it will reduce the amount of time that it takes to complete particular tasks.

In conclusion, the features of a VPS server will allow you to make the most of your dedicated web hosting environment with ease; the low cost of VPS servers has helped to make dedicated hosting services affordable for all. You should always do your research when purchasing a VPS server because there will always be a number of different options to choose from, including managed and unmanaged solutions as well as servers of different specifications.

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Unmanaged Server Solutions

August 11th, 2011

For users of server hosting services who are either more experienced or don’t have a budget that will allow them to stretch to managed server solutions, an unmanaged server solution will be able to provide you with a dedicated web hosting solution that will be able to meet your requirements effectively. Even though an unmanaged server solution will mean that you are responsible for the management of your own server, if you are an experienced user then this is going to be the best option for you because it means that your skills will allow you to save money as you will be able to support yourself and create a web hosting environment that suits your exact requirements. For the most part any good web hosting provider will offer a basic level of support with their unmanaged server solutions to cover aspects that are external to your server hosting service; these aspects may include network issues and power issues as these are problems that you won’t be able to fix yourself and so your web hosting company should be willing to offer you the support of their on-site staff to fix any issues that arise. Web hosting companies offer a wide range of unmanaged VPS servers and dedicated servers meaning that whatever you situation and your requirements, there will be an unmanaged server solution available to meet your requirements and budget; you should shop around to ensure that you receive the best deal possible as some web hosting companies offer full support as standard across their entire range of web hosting services, so if you can save money by choosing another company then you should do so.

Benefits of Unmanaged Server Solutions

There are a number of different benefits to choosing an unmanaged server solution as opposed to a managed server solution, but in order to be able to make the most of these benefits you will need to have some experience with server management. These benefits include:

  • Custom web hosting environment – the major benefit of using an unmanaged server hosting solution is that you will be able to put your skills to full use and create a custom web hosting environment that suits your requirements exactly – when using a managed server hosting solution you often have to rely on the support team of your web hosting provider to create you a web hosting environment that vaguely follows your specifications, but as the administrator of your server you will be able to install whatever applications you want and can make any configuration changes you see as being necessary in the process of meeting your web hosting environment specifications
  • Save money – if you are an experienced user then you will be able to put your skills to use with your unmanaged server hosting solution by supporting yourself and because you aren’t going to be provided with support as you have opted for an unmanaged solution, you will be saving money at the same time – regardless of whether you choose a VPS server or a dedicated server, dedicated web hosting solutions can be expensive because of the features that they offer over traditional shared web hosting plans and so if you are able to save money somewhere then this will put you at an advantage because it will provide you with additional funds to invest in another area that may benefit you such as software
  • Wider choice – you will have a wider choice of applications and options to choose from with an unmanaged server solution because a server hosting solution offers you your own dedicated web hosting environment that will function in the way that you want it to, meaning that as a VPS server user the performance of other servers hosted on the same node as your VPS server won’t impact upon the performance of your dedicated hosting environment – in effect the unmanaged nature of this form of web hosting will enable to express yourself more.

Disadvantages of Unmanaged Server Solutions

There can be several disadvantages to using an unmanaged server solution, but the extent to which these will affect you will depend on your experience. These disadvantages include, but aren’t limited to:

  • Additional support – in some situations you may find that you lack the skills required to complete a particular task and this could be an issue for you if you are trying to secure your server or install a particular application that is core to your requirements – if you do find that you require support from your web hosting provider at this point then you are going to have to pay for it if you are using an unmanaged server hosting solution and paying to receive support can be a costly process, meaning that if you feel there could be an issue with your skills at any point then you should consider a managed hosting solution
  • External support – if you don’t choose a reputable web hosting provider then you may find that the support for external issues that can have an impact on the performance of your server is reduced, which could easily call into question the reliability of your VPS server or dedicated server – because of this it is important for you to choose a web hosting company that you can be sure of offering a high level of support for external issues regardless of whether you are a managed or an unmanaged customer.

In conclusion, an unmanaged server solution will allow you to make the most of your skills if you are an experienced server administrator. Larger businesses generally have a bigger need to use custom or specialist software and components that most support teams will refuse to install if the process is too complex, so by choosing an unmanaged solution they will be able to care of these processes themselves. If you are an inexperienced user then you should consider unmanaged server solutions at the expense of support because you will find yourself being out of your depth and unable to manage your server properly.

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Managed Server Solutions

August 10th, 2011

Server hosting is the most advanced form of web hosting available, regardless of whether you choose a VPS server or a dedicated server as your server hosting solution because they both offer dedicated web hosting environments. Server hosting solutions are used by larger businesses to host large websites that receive a number of visitors every day because large visitor numbers will put a huge load on the hosting server and so in a situation where you are running a very busy website, it is important to be using your own server so that you have large resource assignments available to meet your demands. When purchasing a dedicated web hosting solution you will be asked to choose whether you should like to go for a managed or unmanaged solution; for beginners a managed server solution is the recommended route to take because it will provide you with access to an experienced support team that will be able to assist you with a number of different tasks, allowing you to focus more time on other activities that are more important to you whilst being able to leave the complicated task of server management to a group of people who are experienced with servers. When choosing a managed server solution you should always go with a web hosting provider that you can be sure will be able to offer you a good level of customer service because after all you are going to be paying extra for the extra support, which will be of no use to you if the support offered isn’t any good.

What should I look for in a managed solution?

There are several different features that you should look for in a managed server solution to ensure that you make the right choice over which web hosting plan is going to be most suitable for your needs. Some of these features include:

  • Quality of service offered – managed server hosting services cost more than unmanaged server hosting services and so it is important for you to realize that you are going to be paying this extra premium because of the additional support that is offered – when paying extra for additional support you will want to be sure that you are going to be offered a good level of service as this will allow you to justify the extra cost – the best way to check out the level of service offered by a web hosting company is to read the web hosting reviews that are available for any web hosting company that you may be considering, there should be a mixture of positive and negative reviews available for web hosting providers that have been established for a long period of time
  • Service availability – as a server hosting customer you should be able to expect 24×7 support from your chosen web hosting company, meaning that you can contact them at any time of day with the guarantee that they will answer your query and will be able to sort out your issue if it requires urgent action – most web hosting providers are able to offer 24×7 support through the use of outsourced support staff that are based in other parts of the world and under some circumstances this can impact on the quality of the customer service that is offered, making it even more important to guarantee that you will be offered high quality support then you require it
  • Extra premium – you should look into how much extra you are going to have pay a web hosting provider to receive full support as opposed to how much you would be paying for an unmanaged solution – in some cases you may find that the extra premium is just too much to justify when you can’t be guaranteed high quality support, but at the same time you should review the overall benefits of purchasing a fully managed server hosting solution from a certain web hosting provider because they may go further than simply receiving support when you need it.

How will a managed server solution benefit me?

A managed server solution can offer you many benefits over an unmanaged server solution, although these benefits will only be useful to those who are inexperienced with server management as then you will be able to make the most of what a managed solution has to offer. These benefits include:

  • Professional support – a managed server solution will provide you with access to a professional support team who will be able to assist you with a number of different tasks, whether you want them to create you a secure hosting environment or to install an application that will allow you to make better use of your VPS server or dedicated server – some web hosting companies are also willing to offer a more personal service that is custom to your needs, but specialist web hosting providers offering this level of service often carry an extra premium
  • Stability – if your server is being managed by a professional support team then they will be able to carry out tasks in a professional manner and to the highest standard possible and this is something that is likely to aid the stability of your server hosting solution – stability means that your server is going to be more reliable and less likely to crash and a high level of uptime will allow you to be sure that you are getting good value for money from your chosen web hosting provider.

In conclusion, managed server solutions are the best option for individuals who wish to make the most of their VPS server or dedicated server, but lack the skills necessary to do so. Even though most managed server solutions carry an additional premium because of the extra support that is being provided when compared to an unmanaged server, as long as you select a reputable web hosting provider that can offer 24×7 support then you should find that the extra cost of choosing a managed server solution is easily justified.

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